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Resort Discrimination records

Identifier: umja0029

Scope and Content

This collection consists of letters, mainly from Erwin Oreck and Rosemary Brown, to resorts in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Canada. They ask questions about accommodations, or inquire about what terms such as "restricted clientele" or "clients carefully selected" mean. Included are the resort's response letters, as well as letters to public officals to spread the word to stop the discrimination of, specifically, Jewish persons at resorts. Also included are brochures from numerous resorts; many with "restricted clientele" noted on them.


  • Creation: 1940-1949


Use of Materials

Open for use in the Elmer L. Andersen Library reading room.


Researchers may quote from the collection under the fair use provision of the copyright law (Title 17, U.S. Code). Requests to publish should be arranged with the Upper Midwest Jewish Archives; please contact the archives for more detailed copyright information.

Historical Note

A study of anti-Semitism in Minnesota from 1920 to 1960 claims that the end of World War I marked the beginning of almost total exclusion of Jews from participation in civic and social organizations in certain parts of the state. Discrimination of Jews was high among resorts in northern Minnesota, western Wisconsin, and southern Ontario, Canada. Phrases such as, "Restricted Clientele" and "Clientele Carefully Selected", among other variations, were used on resort brochures and folders to indicate not everyone was welcome. As these materials are believed to have originated from the Jewish Federation and Community Council of Duluth, it is likely that members collectively wrote to resorts whose material these phrases were found on. After inquiring, if it was not clear if a resort did not discriminate against Jewish persons, all correspondence were forwarded to associations and government officials and told that the resort should be not promoted. Additionally, a copy of Outside the Home, an explanation of Section 7321 of Mason's Minnesota Statutes that was passed in 1943, was also sent which describes that it became illegal to discriminate based on religion or national origins.


0.25 Cubic Feet (1 half Hollinger box)

Language of Materials



This collection consists of letters and pamphlets relating to the discrimination of guests; specifically of the Jewish religion, to resorts, hotels, and lodges in northern Minnesota, Ontario, Canada, and north western Wisconsin.

Source of acquisition

Materials donated to the Jewish Historical Society of the Upper Midwest from Temple Israel in Duluth. They came across the documents while cleaning out a space that was formerly the Jewish Community Center. Materials are believed to be originated from the Jewish Federation and Community Council of Duluth.

Alternative Forms Available

All of the contents of this collection have been digitized and are available online. See collection contents link below.

Resort Discrimination records, 1940-1949
Finding aid created by Ashley Skwiera
April 2015
Description rules
Describing Archives: A Content Standard
Language of description
Script of description
Language of description note
Finding aid written in English.

Collecting Area Details

Contact The Upper Midwest Jewish Archives Collecting Area