Charles Stuart, Baron de Rothesay papers
Scope and Content Note
The collection contains 450 signed, autographed letters from officials and friends, papers, several issues of the London Gazette, and documents of Charles Stuart. The letters were primarily written during his ambassadorship to France (1815-1830). The papers also include materials covering his school years at Eton, his early activity as secret agent in Spain and Portugal, his friendship with the Napoleonic family, and his posting to St. Petersburg in his later years. Papers deal with such subjects as Gibraltar, Portugal, Mexico, the West Indies, and France. Included is correspondence from Castlereagh, Earl of Westmoreland, Earl of Jersey, and numerous French and Portuguese officials.
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Biographical Sketch for Charles Stuart, Baron de Rothesay, 1779-1845
Charles Stuart, Baron de Rothesay was a Scottish nobleman who attended Eton and Christ Church in Oxford. When Stuart first joined the diplomatic corps, he served as Secretary of Legation in Vienna, a post which he held until 1804. Afterwards Stuart spent time in Petersburg and then in French-occupied Spain in 1808. Between 1810 and 1814, Stuart served as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Portugal and Brazil. In 1812, Stuart was appointed Knight of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath and sworn in the Privy Council in 1814. For a short period of time, Stuart held the role of ambassador to the Netherlands in between February and May of 1915. Following his Ambassador role in the Netherlands, Stuart became Ambassador to Spain. At the insistence of the Duke of Wellington, Stuart was appointed the coveted position of British Ambassador to France. During the period of Napoleon’s Hundred Days Stuart fled to Brussels and returned to France at Napoleon’s fall from power, afterwards escorting King Louis XVIII back to Paris, and became British Ambassador to France once again until 1824. From 1825 through 1826, Stuart once again returned to the role of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Portugal and Brazil. In 1825, King John VI named Stuart his plenipotentiary, granting him powers to negotiate and sign a treaty with Brazil recognizing their independence. Vested with those powers, Stuart signed the treaty recognizing Brazil’s independence on August 29th, 1825 and on November 15th, 1825, King John VI ratified the treaty. He was then given the title of the 1st Count of Machico by King John VI in 1825, followed by the title the 1st Marquess of Angra in 1826 by Maria II of Portugal. He was later created the 5th Grand-Cross of the Portuguese Ancient and Very Noble Order of the Tower and Sword, of the Valour, Loyalty, and Merit. In 1828, Stuart was once again appointed to the role of Ambassador to France and was given the title of Baron Stuart de Rothesay. He stayed Ambassador to France until 1830, where he was then appointed to the role of Ambassador to Russia in 1841, a post he held until 1844.
Old Historical and Biographical Notes: Early in his career he acted as a secret agent in Spain and Portugal. His first ambassadorial post was in the Netherlands in 1815. The following fifteen years he served as ambassador in France when Paris was the most important diplomatic post in the world. He was friends with the Napoleonic family and was devoted to the cause of the Bourbons during the entire period of their restoration. His final post was in St. Petersburg from 1841 to 1845.
The information in this note is from the following sources:
“Charles Stuart, 1st Baron Stuart De Rothesay.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, August 28, 2020. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Stuart,_1st_Baron_Stuart_de_Rothesay.
471 items (.5 cubic feet)
The collection contains letters, papers and documents of Charles Stuart. The letters were primarily written during his ambassadorship to France (1815-1830) and deal with such subjects as Gibraltar, Portugal, Mexico, the West Indies and France.
Mezz (R80, D5, S1)
Purchased in 1962.
- Charles, Stuart, Baron Stuart de Rothesay, 1779-1845
- France -- Foreign relations -- 18th century -- Sources Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Netherlands -- Foreign relations -- 18th century -- Sources Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Spain -- Foreign relations -- 18th century -- Sources Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Charles Stuart, Baron de Rothesay papers
- Alan Lathrop
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